JP Surfacing offer bespoke resin bonded driveways, which entail a wide range of designs.
JP Surfacing offer bespoke resin bonded driveways, which entail a wide range of designs.
There is a unique procedure which is gaining fame in the modern world for laying the surfacing which is described on this page. In this method, the desired aggregates are bound together by the use of a high strength poly urea resin. It binds the gravel firmly to the base to form a hard-wearing, slip-resistant and traffic friendly pavement.
It is described on the Introduction to Resin Bound Systems page that there are two methods which are used to apply a resin-bound surfacing to the base: Trowelled and Scatter Coat. More popular is the Scatter Coat method, because it has many advantages:
Easier in application- not much experienced workers needed
Low in cost – because the only expense is of resin used at the base
Time saving – can set in a short time of 2 hours
Have variety – has application in odd areas such as steps.
Less material used- the thickness of the surface can only be 4-6 mm.
Resin Bonded Surfacing is suitable for various types of surfacing as it can result in a gravel-like, attractive, natural-looking surface, which is anti-slip in nature. As it is an excellent option for driveways and patios, it is also being used now a days in car parking areas of commercial sectors. It finds many applications on ramps, steps, balconies and other such areas which need a simple, light-weight surface. Along with the use in outdoor, it is also suitable for indoor applications corridors, floors etc.
This product can also assist in making the surface waterproof by using it in the mixture with the elastomeric waterproof membrane and can be applied on balconies, multi-deck car parks etc. To read more about this special feature move to the Technical Department of the better resin suppliers.
The structure of Scatter Coating contains 3 layers: base, resin binder and the aggregate. All these three layers have their own contribution in the pavement strength so proper attention should be paid while constructing the pavement.
Resin Bonded Surfacing is very versatile in nature so it can be applied on a wide variety of bases. These bases must meet certain criteria to obtain best results.
It must be hard- no movement, sponginess, flexibility and crumbling
It must be levelled – the falls and levels is the final pavement depend on the profiling and levelling of the surface dressing with the aggregates. To avoid hollows, dips, peaks, or other deformations, the surfacing must be done in a well order. That is why a thin layer of the material is first laid to make certain the level of the base for the application of the resin and base.
Should be monolithic, which means that it should be of concrete, bitmac, metal or wood. The reason why elemental surfaces, like block paving or flags, are not preferred is the reflection of components at the joint areas. In order to apply direct resin bonded surfacing, blocks should be firmly bonded with the base so that there is no movement between them. This is known as rigid bedding.
Should be clean, so that the resin bonds are firm and strong and cannot lift or peel.
While using an existing base, it should be cleaned to remove any loose or organic material and this should be done with a power washer to get best adhesion of the resin. Since the application of the resin can be done to a damp base, there should be no water on the surface and no oils or greases.
If a new base is to be constructed for surfacing, it is prepared in accordance with the drainage condition and falls are levels are made in order. In order to use concrete base, it is kept to cure for at least 4 days before the application of surface coating. In some cases, treatment is necessary to remove any laitance. It involves the usage of a wired brush or acid etching fluids.
To ensure that the volatiles have escaped, Bitmac surfaced bases are prepared at least a month before the resin coating. It should be also free of oils and greases.
To get complete details on base construction go to Concrete Hardstanding and theTarmacadam Pavement.
If the base is of wood such as for steps etc, it should be ensured that the timber is sound enough and there is no lose material. If the condition of the timber is not fair, it must be replaced. The replacement is easier at this stage then the time when the resin is applied.
In the case of metals base, there should be a proper check on the soundness and there should be no rust on any area of the base.
The fittings in the way of surfacing such as drain covers, manholes etc should be dealt in a way that the coating of the resin should not touch the fittings. The way to get an awesome finish of the surfacing, the fittings should be covered during coating and then opened.
The Key method is used in the case of fittings. The “Key” is a 100-200 mm wide strip, which helps in reducing the level of the existing surface. In thin-coating, such as resin bonded aggregates, the key should be only 6-12mm in depth, and it can be easily removed with the help of a pick-axe or chisel.
If the covers are below the surface level, they should be lifted and then refitted in the correct level to maintain the good look of the entire pavement. The area around the fitted covers should have the Bitmac or concrete base to provide better level for surface coating. Polymer Modified Mortar is considered best in the situation as it sets in only 1 hour.
The resins should be of high performance, multi-part liquid which is self-priming and fast curing. Mostly a polyurea-based resin is used which has good adhesion to bases and aggregate on the surface.
There is a wide variety of colours in resin from which the colour can be decided in accordance with the type of aggregate for dressing. For example, for a light coloured aggregate, like Chinese Bauxite, a buff coloured resin might be used.
The resin can be applied directly to the base, in most cases where In case of a concrete, bituminous or wooden base, no primer is needed. Even then an appropriate pimer should be applied to metal surfaces approximately 2 hours before applying the resin.
Safety Note: Even if the resins are not that much hazardous, except should be kept away from inhaling, but care should be taken and gloves, goggles etc must be used while dealing with the resin during surfacing.
To get good spreading, the components of the resin should be mixed prior. There is always a separate pack which is labelled for each component and also has complete instructions. The packing size is available in variety so that the exact amount can be mixed as required without wasting.
The components are mixed in a special container which has a drill rotating at about 500 rpm. The final instructions are by the manufactures which should be followed during mixing.
To keep the exact ratio of all the materials involved, complete packs should be poured into the mixture. Using the components in small amount can result in improper mixing involving smaller amount of one component and excess of other which can result in unfinished surfacing. Saving a little amount of material can benefit in cost but has adverse effects in quality of the surface.
As the setting time is only about 5-10 minutes, so after spreading resin, aggregate should be applied immediately before drying. There are many methods in the market but the most common method is applying the resin and then spreading through a notched squeegee to ensure uniform thickness.
Another important point which should be noticed is to avoid the coating of buckets with unmixed resin because this resin can mix and the resin surface will not get stiff.
There is a wide range of aggregates which are available for surface dressing. There is pretty much variety in colours which is good for the selection of suitable colours in reasonable packing sizes. The packing sizes are also many in number which helps in buying the required amount avoiding wastage. Before use, it is necessary to check the technical description for ensuring the suitability. The general size of aggregates used is about 6-mm. There should be no moisture in the aggregates and the minimum size should be 0.5 mm and not less.
The aggregate should be spread over the wet resin immediately. A little delay will result in the curing of the aggregate and it sticks to nothing. After the spreading there is enough time which can be utilized in any other task of construction.
The projects shown on this page are handled by the most experienced contractors but the basic rules for surfacing are very simple. The only care should be taken in the selection of contractors or DIYers to get the best results out.
It is very essential to keep the contractor engaged and get at least 10 year guarantee if you are not familiar with the details of surfacing.
After the surfacing is finished, the aggregate is allowed to sink to the resin and is left to cure for a couple of hours, then the excess aggregate is removed. This time can be more or less depending upon the atmospheric temperature and moisture. In cold environment it takes longer to cure as in summer or hot. Then the vacuum technology is used to remove the excess aggregates after the confirmation that the surface is firm enough. These aggregates should be dust free in order to re-pack them and send back.
To incorporate the logos and designs, a pre plan is required. The logo is transformed into a mask which is temporarily fixed and removed after the application of the resin surfacing.
Seal Coat (optional)
After the surface is set, it is ready to use as it requires no extra hardening. But to get the full aggregate adhesion and extra protection from stains, an over seal coat can be applied to the surface.
If the application of the seal coat is required, it should be done immediately after the removal of extra aggregates by vacuum or wired brush. It should be ensured that there is no rain or low temperature conditions in the next whole day after the application of the seal coat. Seal coat suggested by the resin manufacturers should be used in order to get the proper bonding and effectiveness.
A decorator’s role is used to apply the seal coat which is done in the form of a paint over the surface. The average amount used for covering is almost 1 litre for about 2-7 square meters.
Once the seal coat is applied, the pavement should not be used for almost next 4 hours. The second coat is applied after 24 hours to get extra gloss. There should be no traffic on the surface during the gap between the two coatings. The drying time for the second coat is also 4 hours.